Hari Hari mu adalah Umur mu..

العلماء هم ضالتي في كل بلدة وهم بغيتي ووجدت صلاح قلبي في مجالسة العلماء // Orang-orang yang berilmu agama adalah orang yang kucari di setiap tempat. Mereka adalah tujuan yang selalu kucari. Dan aku menemukan keshalihan hatiku di dalam bergaul dengan mereka. (حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء , IV/85 )

Radio Network Optimization (RNO) based on Customer Complain

jaringan July 2nd, 2014

RNO: Radio Network Optimization is a process where we need to tune different types of radio parameter to improve radio network accessibility and quality.
For any radio network either it’s WCDMA or GSM, it is important to optimize to provide desired services to the subscriber. But in wireless or radio network, significance of optimization carries huge value. I will show you a typical case where we need to optimize to improve network quality and coverage.


Subscriber complains detail:
  • Here Subscriber complains that he is facing Blocked call(when subscriber tries to call, it’s blocked by the network) and Dropped Call(When subscriber in conversation with called party it’s dropped, although customer didn’t finished his conversation with his called party).
  • No service mode (there is no network in subscriber device) or Limited service mode (very few services enabled, which is not sufficient to make a call or provide internet service).
  • Network fluctuation (That is received signal fluctuates).
Above scenarios occur indoor locations only. But in outdoor received signal Level (Rxlevel) is satisfactory.
GSM Radio Network diagnosis report:
 
 
  • Call setup success rate (CSSR) is 20 % that is if subscriber ties to call 10 times he becomes successful for 2 times only.
  • Received signal level (Rxlevel) fluctuates -15dbm to -20dbm.
  • Very poor Received signal strength (-98dbm) and received signal quality (6 to 7).
  • Timing advance (TA) Value 4 to 5.
  • Poor Signal Quality Index mean opinion score (SQI MOS) around (1.5 to 2.5), but the standard value of SQI MOS is above 3.1.
Reason for bad quality and coverage:
  • Due to dense vegetation received signal level falls at very high scale.
  • Customer location is surrounded by metallic body (TIN SN), hence signal fluctuates at broad scale.
  • Distance of subscriber from serving site is 2.88km, which is blocked by the dense vegetation.
  • Antenna transmit power is only 30W, where as the system maximum capacity is 45W.
  • Direction of subscriber from the serving site is 230 degree, but antenna direction is in 180 degree.

Existing Radio frequency (RF) parameter (Physical and logical) information:
  • Serving antenna azimuth 170 degree.
  • Serving antenna height is 35m.
  • Electrical tilt of serving antenna is 2.
  • Mechanical tilt of serving antenna is 0.
  • Serving antenna band Single Band (GSM 900 only).
  • Antenna vendor “AGISSON“, Model: A19451811.
  • Antenna beam width 65 degree (Horizontal) and 8.86 degree (Vertical).
  • Antenna gain 17.5dbi.
  • Antennas transmit power 30W.

RNO process (Solution for the Subscriber):
  • Serving antenna azimuth should be 200 instead of 170. But for best result it should be directed to the subscriber location at 230. It’s not possible because of, if we do that the serving cell will overlap with its neighbor cell, also there will be few null coverage areas.
  • Transmit power should be 40W instead of 30W. Because of we have to strengthen received signal level (Rxlevel).
  • Electrical tilt should be 4 instead of 2, because received signal fluctuation largely depends on lower value of electrical tilt. But in AGISSON antenna’s electrical tilt inversely proportional to the coverage areas.
RNO Remarks:
For the flowing subscriber, we’ve changed both logical and Physical parameter. After RNO process received signal level (Rxlevel) significantly improved. Finally subscriber was very happy with network quality and coverage.
http://cwnabook.blogspot.com/2014/07/radio-network-optimization-rno-based-on.html

Daily Lesson

jaringan January 23rd, 2014

Everyday  i usually about to adjust myself in this work. I’m embarrassed in case of not able to perform the jobs.

I’m a beginner, therefore i ask a question to my friend sitting beside me often. Today, i acquie new thing. I’m so excited. I learned how to check the parameter cell o the whole. Using Nastar aplication, we able to do it easily.

Thank a lot for my colleage !

 

 

Logical Channel Pada TRX GSM

jaringan September 27th, 2013

http://www.mobileindonesia.net/satu-kota-satu-bts-per-operator/

Tidak semua TS dalam TRX dapat digunakan sebagai kanal trafik percakapan pelanggan (TCH). Ada TS yang harus dialokasikan sesuai dengan tugas masing-masing logical channel. Logical channel TCH tentu saja berfungsi sebagai kanal untuk pelanggan melakukan percakapan. Melalui logical channel ini operator mendapatkan revenue voice-nya.

Selain itu, ada 2 logical channel lain yang disebutkan sebelumnya dengan fungsinya: 1) logical channel yang akan dipakai oleh BTS untuk menyediakan sinyal -logical channel ini disebut sebagai Broadcast Control Channel atau BCCH-; 2) Logical channel yang akan dipakai oleh handphone untuk mendapatkan akses percakapan ke BTS –logical channel ini disebut Random Access Channel atau (RACH). Ini hanya beberapa dari logical channel yang tersedia untuk melakukan fungsi komunikasi GSM.

Beberapa, tetapi tidak semua, akan diuraikan di sini. RACH dipakai oleh handphone yang akan melakukan panggilan saja. Jika handphone tersebut menerima panggilan maka BTS akan menggunakan logical channel yang disebut Paging Channel (PCH) untuk memberitahu handphone tersebut. Jika handphone tersebut menjawab panggilan BTS, melalui PCH, maka BTS akan menyediakan 1 logical channel buat handphone untuk melakukan persiapan panggilan, yang disebut Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel atau SDCCH. Selain membantu TCH, SDCCH juga adalah kanal yang dipakai untuk mengirim dan menerima SMS.

Setiap sektor BTS harus memiliki kanal BCCH masing-masing. Jika 1 BTS memiliki 3 sektor maka BTS tersebut wajib memiliki 3 BCCH. Sebenarnya BCCH menentukan independensi dan identitas suatu sektor sehingga menjadi unik. Selain BCCH, 1 sektor harus memiliki beberapa kanal SDCCH. Sisanya bisa digunakan sebagai kanal trafik yang menghasilkan uang.

Dengan contoh sederhana lagi, jika 1 sektor BTS memiliki 4 TRX (masing-masing 8 TS) maka berikut kira-kira pembagian logical channel-nya: pada TRX I akan ditempatkan BCCH dan SDCCH. 1 TS untuk BCCH, 2 TS untuk SDCCH dan sisa 5 TS pada TRX I dan 3 TRX lainnya akan dipakai semuanya untuk TCH, sehingga total TS TCH ada 5 + 3×8 = 29 TS.

Bagaimana dengan RACH & PCH yang disebutkan sebelumnya? Secara bergantian mereka akan memakai TS yang digunakan SDCCH sehingga tidak ikut dihitung sebagai TS khusus. Kemungkinan akan ada logical channel lain yang ingin dipakai di sektor tersebut seperti logical channel untuk cell broadcast (CBCH) atau logical channel untuk GPRS dan EDGE (PDCH). Penambahan logical channel akan mengurangi kanal TCH secara keseluruhan.

Perkembangan Tata Ulang Frekwensi Jaringan 3G Operator di Indonesia

jaringan September 25th, 2013

XL Axiata menjadi operator yang tercepat melakukan retuning radio untuk migrasi 3G di frekuensi 2.1 GHz. Anak usaha Axiata ini tercatat telah menghidupkan blok kanal ketiganya (3rd carrier) di 14 propinsi.

3rd carrier ini mulai dioperasikan XL di blok kanal yang ditinggalkan Indosat. Tercatat area yang sudah dioperasikan adalah Sumatera Barat, Kepulauan Riau, Bangka Belitung, Kalimantan Tengah, Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Maluku, Kalimantan Timur, Jambi, dan Lampung.

“Yang belum di XL masih tinggal enam propinsi lagi,” kata Gatot S Dewa Broto, Kepala Pusat Informasi dan Humas Kementerian Kominfo, di Jakarta, Senin (1/7/2013).

Sementara Indosat yang berpindah ke blok kanal yang sebelumnya ditempati Hutchison 3 Indonesia (Tri) telah melakukan retuning di lima propinsi seperti Aceh, Lampung, Kalimantan Timur, Bengkulu, dan Jambi.

“Propinsi yang masih on going untuk Indosat di Banten, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Yogyakarta, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Sulawesi Selatan, Bali, Jakarta, dan Kepulauan Riau,” papar Gatot.

Sementara Tri yang bergeser ke blok kanal bekas Axis, tercatat sudah retuning di 12 propinsi, seperti Aceh, Jambi, Bengkulu, Lampung, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kalimantan Selatan, Sulawesi Utara, Sulawesi Selatan, Sumatera Barat, dan Kepulauan Riau.

Sedangkan Axis Telekomunikasi Indonesia yang bergeser dua kanal ke blok 11 dan 12 baru menyelesaikan tiga propinsi, yakni di Sumatera Barat, Kepulauan Riau, dan Kalimantan Timur.

“Axis yang lagi on going di Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Banten, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur. Yang belum dimulai di empat propinsi, yakni Sumatera Utara, Aceh, Yogyakarta, dan Riau,” jelas Gatot.

Terakhir, Telkomsel yang menempati satu blok tambahan untuk 3rd carrier di blok bekas Axis sejauh ini baru menghidupkan kanal barunya di empat propinsi, yakni Aceh, Lampung, Sulawesi Utara, dan Sulawesi Selatan.

“Masih ada 18 propinsi lainnya yang belum dihidupkan Telkomsel,” pungkas Gatot

Banyak daerah yang terkena interferensi akibat tata ulang jaringan 3G ini.

FYI : Interferensi adalah interaksi antar gelombang di dalam suatu daerah. Interferensi dapat bersifat membangun dan merusak. Bersifat membangun jika beda fase kedua gelombang sama sehingga gelombang baru yang terbentuk adalah penjumlahan dari kedua gelombang tersebut. Bersifat merusak jika beda fasenya adalah 180 derajat, sehingga kedua gelombang saling menghilangkan.

http://www.privatessh.com/2013/07/laporan-perkembangan-tata-ulang.html

 

Berikut beberapa hasil pengamatan yang dilakukan oleh tim NPM AXIS West Java

…Read the rest of this entry »

KPI – intro

jaringan August 26th, 2013

Purpose

The purpose of today’s tutorial is to present an introduction to network analysis through the use of indicators and statistics.

These tests, as already mentioned briefly, are very broad, and can be as diverse and complex as we wish. For this reason, we will not get through to you all at once. And even if we tried, certainly would not have the desired result. We want you to learn above all, so we will do an introduction, a bit more theoretical, with the key concepts involved in statistical analysis. Not really going to stop practicing, even with the creation of a simple application. So understand this tutorial essential as a general preparation for other modules that Hunter will address specifically analysis of indicators.

As the concepts involved are many, will talk briefly about them, trying to give an overview. As we speak, this may be one of its best qualities as a professional, so enjoy each topic presented today. Why not take the time to go releasing their creativity: as reading, think about the ways of how you would do the same procedures. Remember that Hunter is always improvements, and their input will make a system more intelligent and efficient.

Note: In the vast majority of the tutorials have the related files, which are sent to the Subscribers .

  • If you are a subscriber , please check your email in the received file for this tutorial , and use the support any questions or problems you encounter.
    • Blog_014_Network_Statistics_(KPI_Intro). zip.
  • If you are a

  • State common and has access only to the written tutorial, learn always very important concepts that will surely help you in your own designs. Read and check each new tutorial.
    • If you want to contribute in some way, the simplest way is become a subscriber .

Our audience ranges from students to experienced professionals. So we ask a little understanding and tolerance are some of the basic concepts presented today are for you. Moreover, all the tutorials, codes and programs are a continuous process of editing. This means that if we find any error, for example, grammar or spelling, try to fix it as soon as possible. We would also like to receive your feedback, informing us of errors or passages that were confusing and deserve to be rewritten.

 

File Structure

New module – new directories and files. Create a new structure as shown below. The main directory that contains all other directories of the directory module is KPI (1).

 

You should already be familiar, but remember that the input data are stored in the Data folder (2) to be processed by the codes that are in the Scripts folder (4), and finally inserted in the tables of the database, in the Database folder (3).

Once created the directory structure, we can proceed.

 

What are Indicators

Before anything, do you know what is an indicator? As its name suggests, serves as an indicator to signal or indicate how it is something. The indicators are based on a reference, and from it we know whether the measure is good or bad.

In a practical example, imagine a person with a fever. One indicator that we used to know it is temperature. Ie using a thermometer, which measured the temperature of the person. If it is much larger than about 37 degrees, she has a fever – bad. In other words, the indicators allow comparisons across qualify.

 

In the case of our network is not so different, the indicators are used to find out if it is bad, good or acceptable, for example. After each activity, we use indicators to assess the results of actions taken.

 

And what are the Indicators of a Cellular Network?

We have seen that indicators of a cellular network are many and can come from numerous sources. And since today we are still a general overview, let’s talk just a few – the most basic but most important, and then talk of others, all the time.

Continuing the analogy with the case of fever, and the temperature there are other indicators, such as whether the person is a headache or not, if the throat is inflamed, etc. . But note: only with temperature – too high – we already know that the person is ill – with fever. Other indicators in this case will help us see what the best remedy must be taken, ie what is the solution to be adopted. But the problem has been found! That is, only with the key indicator – temperature – we already know that the problem exists.

Returning to our world in a cellular network, see figure below. Note: Again we are using our limited graphics capabilities, please give more importance to content as the presentation here, okay? And if you have design skills, and want to help, contact us, we have numerous pictures to convert.

 

Suppose someone made a call, lasting 30 minutes. Suppose further that this connection was made without problems, ie, had no type of blocking, and it was terminated normally – did not drop.

Believe it or not, the above assumption already defines the key indicators of a network! Considering our universe of sampling only that person can say that our network had at the time a traffic of 0.5 Erlangs, a drop calls rate of 0%, and also a blockage rate of 0%. (What is Erlang? And Drop Rates? Relax, we’ll talk later.)

Of course you can not consider a sample so small, it is meaningless. But serves to illustrate.

Finishing the analogy with the case of fever, remember that the temperature can be regarded as a key indicator is not it? Well, in the case of our network, the three indicators above can also seen as key to evaluate the network. Therefore, these three indicators – traffic, drops and blockages, along with a few other like handover, form what we call Key Performance Indicators, more popularly known as KPI. The name is intuitive, and these indicators are the minimum for any analysis to be complete.

Indicators may also be of various types, always based on a count or measure. Can be considered absolute values, percentages, or other. It is common to use statistical formulas, and other resources like graphics and thematic maps, geo-referenced or not.

Now you understand why we spoke before the tests could be how much more complex and complete we do not? But do not worry, now we’re just going through the main concepts. There are several modules Hunter responsible for making the statistical analysis of the network more efficient and streamlined as possible. We explore in detail each of them soon, and almost all the concepts will be more detailed over time, whenever necessary. What we want from you today is that you have a general understanding. Just so we can continue

 

In practice, how are Indicators analyzed?

In practice, the indicators are stored – usually in the database and/or tables – to allow further consultations and historical analysis, but may be available in near real time depending on your application.

Whatever the source, the ideal is to consolidate data in one location, thus facilitating access to all information that may be useful in the analysis. Queries to these data can be done in several ways, via SQL, tables directly, or through proprietary interfaces and / or developed for this purpose.

The most common and easy to understand the indicators is through the OSS that provides statistical data on the network. It’s that program that allows us to download data for a particular period, for certain network elements.

Ok, the conversation is getting too technical, let’s change the focus …

The indicators are usually in clusters of counters, and a cellular network has thousands of meters. That’s right, thousands. Depending on the technology and vendor, the level of detail of the counters is very deep, why they had so many. All the more reason we know what we’re doing.

Again, it will be easier to understand when we do analysis in practice.

 

Automation

When working with a very large amount of data, and there is need for repetitive treatment of the same, automation becomes almost mandatory.

Professional tools professionals use advanced database and programming. For example using C#, Java or php accessing data in Oracle, SQL and other databases. The processes are periodic, and usually fetch data from any server via ftp. Complicated? Yes, but let’s not worry about this complexity. We will use artifacts and interesting at Hunter, where almost always reach the same results as these tools, you’ll see.

Without fear of anything humble opinion, we have a ready answer when someone asks if can ‘t do something, using a macro or something. The short answer is YES! Of course we’re talking in terms of analysis & computing, but with will and creativity, you will see that we really do almost anything you imagine more efficiently. This is the notion implicit in the tool over Hunter, and we want you also have this ability and consequent confidence. (And remember, it appears that some challenge you can not resolve, ask the help of our support! We are happy to try to help).

 

And how do we work with Hunter?

We will try, wherever possible, to reproduce the processes of an environment with automated processes and also non-automated.

 

We say as much as possible because there are steps that you probably do not (yet) should have contact. For example, when you have to download data from meters, how do you do? Probably through the interface of a non-OSS? Or perhaps via ftp? Even so, using any ftp program or something, and manually

In some cases we simulate the data have already been downloaded – exported from the OSS – for some specific times and days. Probably you will work with Hunter on a regular basis, or periodically (daily?) Accesses the OSS, and will seek the group of counters you want in your queries created or pre-defined, saving files in the default folder to import.

Over time we will find the best way. Now let’s continue.

 

Data

As always, our data are fictitious. Playing the most common form of output data from an OSS whatsoever, we have at least a field identifying the period (a) one or more fields that identify the element in its granularity (2) and the fields of counters per se (3) .

So we have an example of raw counter data exported from our OSS standard. Counter_kpi.xls will represent the file, located in the Data module KPI.

 

NOTE: In our example, for demonstration purposes only, the names of the counters are very intuitive. For example, the name of our counter who has the amount of dropped calls is counter_call_drop. In practice, this counter can have any name, eg xy123a, and their relationship and meaning be obtained from auxiliary tables. Moreover, the counters do not necessarily represent the indicator itself. The indicators are defined by metrics.

 

What are Metrics?

Metrics are the mathematical representation of the indicators, ie, what the calculations should be performed and which counters should be used to reach the desired value.

An example of metrics: dropped calls rate. The rate of dropped calls, like the intuitive name suggests, tells us how calls are dropping – the higher the rate, more calls are dropping, the worse is our network.

Following the counters defined in our example file, we define some metrics to illustrate. Query fields are qry_KPI.

  • TRAFFIC : counter_traffic
  • TOTAL_CALL_DROPS : counter_call_drops
  • CALL_DROPS_% : 100 * [counter_call_drops] / [counter_call_success]
  • TOTAL_CALL_BLOCKS : counter_call_blocks
  • CALL_BLOCKS_% : 100 * [counter_call_blocks] / [counter_call_attempts]

It’s done! We have a first report, pretty simple, but with very important information.

 

A quick way of working with the data is using the resources of Access itself. For example, to see what the industry with the worst rate of dropped calls at this time, click on any record field CALL_DROPS_% (1) and then click Sort by Descending (2). (As we speak but it’s just a fast, and not how we work).

 

If all this started to get confusing for you, fine. Rest assured because it will get easier when you practice.

 

Process

Ok, we log into our OSS, and export files with our counters data. And now?

Well, the next step is to store data in a table. So, next time when we have a new file created, we turn to import, and with time we will have a table with the accumulated data properly.

This is done through VBA. In our example today, we have a small sample application that performs the import operations (1), storage (2) and presentation of the indicators of network (3).

 

The cumulative table tbl_kpi_counters is in the database Hunter_KPI_DB.mdb, located in the Database module KPI.

 

The database Hunter_KPI_RUN.mdb, located in the scripts folder of the module KPI, has this table tbl_kpi_counters linked. We’ve seen in first tutotrials the reasons to use linked tables, if in doubt, please re-read them.

 

When we run the macro KPI_Main_RUN it to runs the VBA code that deletes data from table tbl_kpi_counters, and then import the data file kpi_counters.xls, located in the Data directory of KPI module.

The accumulated data in the table tbl_kpi_counters can be accessed through queries. We can create predefined queries for each purpose, and call them when necessary.

There are several ways to display the data: executing the query qry_kpi, directly through Access interface, or opening it through the VBA code, or even using a macro. To illustrate the latter case, we put the option to display the query with the final data in the macro, as shown below.

 

Let’s only see a few more tips and important concepts, to finish by today, okay?

 

Homogenization

Another concept that we use in the Hunter is the homogenization. This means that we seek whenever possible, consolidate all statistics in a single table, no matter the technology, supplier, etc. …

To make it easier to understand, imagine a network with a GSM equipment supplier A, and UMTS equipment from another supplier B. Instead of working with both so different, we prefer to group the data. Thus, we still can get reports separately, but is simpler and advantageous also obtain general reports.

One example. We have a table with the KPI GSM, shown in green. We see quickly that we had a traffic of 21.66 Erlangs at BTS GCELL01, and 5 drops.

 

Similarly, for the UMTS BTS UCELL01, traffic was routed to 84.86 Erlangs, and had 36 falls.

 

But homogenize our data, we have a single table, and all queries can be done over it.

The same data are easily obtained in the previous final table. Except that we also aogra so simple, summary of the system! We see for example the site CELL01 (GSM + UMTS) had a total traffic of 106.52 Erlangs

 

Hunter Algorithms

Finally for today, we currently use four algorithms for data analysis with the Hunter, and they are:

  • Top & Summary : the most common way to analyze. For each analysis period, a summary, with values for the entire system, and ancillary reports with the TOP N offenders in each item.
  • Delta : the best way to check anomalies in the network, checks whether something is outside the expected pattern. It will be shown in more detail in a future tutorial (Hunter Delta KPI), and is essential for the area of O & M.
  • Rank : more complete algorithm, involving weights and weights of all indicators. Also by its complexity, will be detailed in a later tutorial (Hunter Rank KPI).

We could talk much more about each of these algorithms that we use, and also on some concepts that have not yet seen. But by now you should be well filled head, no?

So, let’s stay here, at least try to understand what is generally through a network analysis of indicators and statistics. The details we will soon see, in each new tutorial.

 

Conclusion

Today we had our first contact with the Indicators Network, and we realize the importance of analyzing the network through statistics. New concepts so popular, but will be studied in more detail, and practical application in future modules of the Hunter, specific to each process and / or algorithm seen.

In oversimplified form, just for demonstration purposes, we created an application that simulates the basic procedures of import, storage and presentation of data. Although simple, allows us to imagine the gains to come with tools that help us both in processing speed, accuracy in the analysis and ease of operation – Hunter Tool.

We hope you’ve enjoyed. If you have any doubts, find the answers posting your comments in the blog or via our support via chat or email.

Till our next meeting, and remember: Your success is our success!

http://www.telecomhall.com/kpi-intro.aspx

What is Antenna Electrical and Mechanical Tilt (and How to use it)?

jaringan July 4th, 2013

The efficiency of a cellular network depends of its correct configuration and adjustment of radiant systems: their transmit and receive antennas.

And one of the more important system optimizations task is based on correct adjusting tilts, or the inclination of the antenna in relation to an axis. With the tilt, we direct irradiation further down (or higher), concentrating the energy in the new desired direction.

When the antenna is tilted down, we call it ‘downtilt’, which is the most common use. If the inclination is up (very rare and extreme cases), we call ‘uptilt’.

Note: for this reason, when we refer to tilt in this tutorial this means we’re talking about ‘downtilt’. When we need to talk about ‘uptilt’ we’ll use this nomenclature, explicitly.

The tilt is used when we want to reduce interference and/or coverage in some specific areas, having each cell to meet only its designed area.

 

Although this is a complex issue, let’s try to understand in a simple way how all of this works?

Note: All telecomHall articles are originally written in Portuguese. Following we translate to English and Spanish. As our time is short, maybe you find some typos (sometimes we just use the automatic translator, with only a final and ‘quick’ review). We apologize and we have an understanding of our effort. If you want to contribute translating / correcting of these languages, or even creating and publishing your tutorials, please contact us: contact.

 

But Before: Antenna Radiation Diagram

Before we talk about tilt, it is necessary to talk about another very important concept: the antennas radiation diagram.

The antenna irradiation diagram is a graphical representation of how the signal is spread through that antenna, in all directions.

It is easier to understand by seeing an example of a 3D diagram of an antenna (in this case, a directional antenna with horizontal beamwidth of 65 degrees).

 

The representation shows, in a simplified form, the gain of the signal on each of these directions. From the center point of the X, Y and Z axis, we have the gain in all directions.

If you look at the diagram of antenna ‘from above’, and also ‘aside’, we would see something like the one shown below.

 

These are the Horizontal (viewed from above) and Vertical (viewed from the side) diagrams of the antenna.

But while this visualization is good to understand the subject, in practice do not work with the 3D diagrams, but with the 2D representation.

So, the same antenna we have above may be represented as follows.

 

Usually the diagrams have rows and numbers to help us verify the exact ‘behavior’ in each of the directions.

  • The ‘straight lines’ tells us the direction (azimuth) – as the numbers 0, 90, 180 and 270 in the figures above.
  • And the ‘curves’ or ‘circles’ tells us the gain in that direction (for example, the larger circle tells you where the antenna achieves a gain of 15 db).

According to the applied tilt, we’ll have a different modified diagram, i.e. we affect the coverage area. For example, if we apply an electrical tilt of 10 degrees to antenna shown above, its diagrams are as shown below.

 

The most important here is to understand this ‘concept’, and be able to imagine how would the 3D model be, a combination of its Horizontal and Vertical diagrams.

 

Now yes, what is Tilt?

Right, now we can talk specifically about Tilt. Let’s start reminding what is the Tilt of an antenna, and what is its purpose.

The tilt represents the inclination or angle of the antenna to its axis.

 

As we have seen, when we apply a tilt, we change the antenna radiation diagram.

For a standard antenna, without Tilt, the diagram is formed as we see in the following figure.

 

There are two possible types of Tilt (which can be applied together): the electrical Tilt and Mechanical Tilt.

The mechanical tilt is very easy to be understood: tilting the antenna, through specific accessories on its bracket, without changing the phase of the input signal, the diagram (and consequently the signal propagation directions) is modified.

 

And for the electrical tilt, the modification of the diagram is obtained by changing the characteristics of signal phase of each element of the antenna, as seen below.

 

…Read the rest of this entry »

RADIO PLANNING and OPTIM

jaringan December 3rd, 2012

APA ITU Radio planning & optim ?


Dari namanya saja, udah jelas job descnya. jadi bagian ini bertugas untuk merencanakan perangkat-perangkat radio, dan mengoptimasinya agar sesuai dengan standard kepuasan konsumen. hehehehe

Perangkat yang diurus?

Tentu saja perangkat radio: BTS, BSC, TRAU. tapiiiiii, orang2 planning & optim ini bukan ngurusin fisik dari perangkat ters

ebut, melainkan parameter2 yang ada didalamnya. misal:
kemiringan & heading antena
signal strength
sectoring antena
frekuensi yang dipakai
dll

Kerjaan orang planning & optim?

Drive test: jalan2 menyusuri daerah cakupan BTS sambil ngecek signal, handover, dll
Troubleshooting masalah pelanggan. bersama engineer radio yang lain, sang planner harus bisa ngesolve issue ini. mis: kalo ada blankspot, tiba2 saja sinyal mendadak menjadi jelek sekali pada jam2 tertentu, dll
Planning perangkat baru. misal: menentukan koordinat lokasi BTS yang optimal, menentukan sektoring yang optimal.
melakukan analisys kenapa radio network tidak memenuhi KPI (key performance indicator), sekaligus ngasih solusi untuk itu.
Tuning radio parameter: mis: alokasi frekuensi, power, channel
analisis interferensi
membuat forecasting traffic
investigasi problem radio
kadang juga harus koordinasi dengan perangkat dari vendor lain.
dll

Kondisi kerja: Orang planning biasanya kerjaannya di kantoran. Paling juga keluar buat drive-test. kebanyakan sih dia duduk dikantor sambil analize data-data. jadi jam kerjanya sering office hour gitu

Skill yang diperlukan. ya tentu saja skill untuk ngurusin planning & optim:

Konsep GSM. ini harus ngerti, fundamental banget soalnya. WAJIB NGERTI!!! belajar GSM basic ngak ada urusannya dengan jual beli pulsa, install game di HP, dll yang seperti itu. Skill GSM basic ini sifatnya umum, yang mencakup secara general bagian-bagian yang ada di network.
Ngerti bagian RADIO. ini adalah pelajaran lanjutan dari GSM Fundamental. anda harus tau interface yang dipake disana (um interface, a interface, dll), tau bedanya channel2: (FACCH, TCH, BCCH, dst), ngerti konversi signal antara BSC-TRAU & BSC-BTS, dll
punya pengalaman menjadi engineer BSS. karena dia kan harus akses perangkat. kalo ngak ngerti perangkat vendr, gimana bisa ngerti?
ngerti tools untuk ngambil performance data. misal: Actix, mapinfo, Nemo, NetAct, MS office, Planet-EV
kadang juga diminta untuk bisa multi-vendor. jadi dia harus ngerti parameter dari vendor yang laen.
harus ngerti proses planning & optim terutama untuk radio
ngerti analisis data. biasanya orang planning jagoan kalo pake excel atau database. hehehe soalnya itu makanan dia tiap hari. kalo udah selesai analyses ya harus bikin reportnya dong..
Skill lain yang mungkin saya lupa. 😀

Nah orang planning & optim ini biasanya suka jadi expat di luar negri, karena banyak perusahaan telco yang butuh. hehehe :-p beberapa kali pengalaman diluar, temen2 expat dari indo biasanya orang2 planning/optim/radio. jarang yang dari core network.

Cuplikann dari tulisan Mas Ahmad Mardiansyah

Site Performance after change LAC activity BPAR1 10July2012

jaringan July 11th, 2012

Berikut performance after change LAC untuk site BPAR1 berikut, overall performance maintain

NE ID Site Name
COA010G Combat Sicincin
PAR151G Manggung Naras
PAR269G (SC_PR3026B) Agus Salim Pariaman
PAR269D (SC_PR3026B) Agus Salim Pariaman
PAR145G Simpang Aru Sarik
PAR145D Simpang Aru Sarik
LBB017G Manggopoh II
LBB017D Manggopoh II
PAR115G Pakandangan

Muaro Kalaban Issue

jaringan July 11th, 2012

Berikut performance Muara Kalaban, High drop di GSMnya suspect alarm rx diversity antenna, terlampir log alarmnya
Untuk DCS drop masih maintain

EXCHID MO REFERENCE FAULT_CLASS FAULT_CODE REPLACEMENT_UNITS MOTY TG DESCRIPTION
BPLK5IP30R07 RXOCF-199 SW4203G+KALABAN 2AMAP 33  57 RXOCF 199 RXOCF/2AMAP/33;  RX diversity lost     RXOCF/2AMAP/57;  Unspecified
BPLK5IP30R07 RXOCF-199 SW4203G+KALABAN REPLMAP 40 RXOCF 199 RXOCF/REPLMAP/40;  ANTENNA

Berikut performance availibility & TCH blocking,
Untuk TCH blocking action sementara adjust ke half rate dan sharing trafik


Thanks,

Complain – Lubuk Alung

jaringan, Uncategorized July 3rd, 2012

Biasanya kasus ini seperti ini gejala nya

  • SQI hilang padahal Rx Qual bagus : berarti tidak ada masalah dengan radio condition refer ke item terakhir di bawah
  • SQI hilang setelah handover : berarti ada masalah di sisi abis interface ntah itu transmisi atau
  • SQI hilang setelah perpindahan antar speech codec misal dari AMR FR ke AMR HR berarti ada masalah di sisi BTS
  • SQI hilang tiba2 berarti FER nya ga bisa di measure, yang pasti nya kondisi kaya gini ga ada data ( silence call ) ketika DT pas nge call di 199 kan biasanya ada lagunya, kalo ga ada SQI biasa nya lagu nya ga muncul…masalah ini biasa nya sudah masalah core